This list of terms is to help guide your understanding and use of the Toolkit, in particular the Survey Results. It is not a comprehensive list of important terminology for the practice of documentation.

Access to Rural Areas

One of the options that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 0% of respondents said that this was their biggest challenge. Access to rural areas relates to the accessibility of rural populations for documentation purposes who may otherwise be isolated or difficult to reach because of their location.

Child Soldier

A child (person under age 18) who is recruited or being used by an armed group or armed forces. This is not limited to fighting and includes children used as fighters, lookouts, messengers, workers, spies, or sex slaves.1

Children

A population of concern that includes all people below the age of 18.

Conflict Zone

A conflict zone refers to a location in which active hostilities are currently taking place or where there is extreme violence.

Cultural Violations

A human rights violation category from the Questionnaire that includes: banning the use of minority or indigenous languages; and destruction of cultural heritage or property.

Did Not Specify

Questionnaire respondent did not specify.

Disabled Persons

A population of concern that includes individuals falling within the definition of disabled persons as set forth in Article 1 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, including “those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.”

Displaced Persons

A population of concern that includes people who are coerced or compelled to leave their property, home, city, or country because of actual violence or threat of violence or harm.

Documentation

A process for collecting information. In the context of human rights violations in conflict or post-conflict countries, documentation often involves several steps: (1) assessing what information needs to be collected; (2) determining how to gather the identified information; (3) collecting the information; (4) organizing and storing the collected information; and (5) distributing the information to those who require it. The type of information collected in the documentation process is wide-ranging. Documentation may take the form of administrative records, interviews, photographs, videos, drawings, maps, legal documents, and periodicals.

Economic Violations

A human rights violation category from the Questionnaire that includes: destruction or theft of property; forced evictions and violations related to housing; use of water as a weapon; and contaminating food or water.

Ethnic Minorities

A population of concern that includes all ethnic minorities as defined by individual organizations or local communities.

Event Monitoring

Survey responses relating to “Event Monitoring and Recording” include: photographs or video; geospatial imagery; crowdsourcing; and collecting media or social media reports.

Forced Displacement

When a person is coerced or compelled to leave their property, home, or city because of actual violence or harm, or threat of violence or harm.2

Forensic Pathology

A specific branch of pathology, the science of the causes and nature of disease, which relates to the study and determination of the cause and manner of a person’s death through the examination, often by autopsy, of the body.3

Former Combatants

A population of concern that includes both state and non-state actors previously involved in military or paramilitary groups.

Human Rights Violation

Violations of inherent rights to all human beings, including those internationally recognized human rights guaranteed under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, U.N. human rights treaties, and regional human rights treaties.4

Indigenous Peoples

While there is no specific and recognized definition, this population of concern is commonly understood to include people who are descendants of the population who inhabited a geographic region at the arrival time of people of a different culture and/or ethnic origin.5

Interview with Discussion Guide

Interview, meeting, or conversation where one person questions another to gain information, with attached guide and analysis to instruct and aid the person conducting the interview.

Interviews

Survey responses relating to methods for documenting personal narratives and conducting interviews include: interview with informant, no discussion guide; interview with informant, discussion guide; survey (random selection) with instrument; focus group; and oral history.

Lack of Human Resources

One of the options that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 9.43% of respondents said their biggest challenge is a lack of human resources, which includes documenters and support staff.

Lack of Knowledge among Documented Population

One of the options that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 1.89% of respondents said their biggest challenge is a lack of knowledge among the documented population. Lack of knowledge refers to populations who lack an understanding of the documentation process, the context in which the documentation is being conducted, or the potential uses for the documentation, such as transitional justice efforts.

Lack of Physical and/or Monetary Resources

One of the options that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 30.19% of respondents said their biggest challenge is a lack of physical and/or monetary resources, for instance computers, storage, funding, etc.

LGBTI Community

The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI) community is a population of concern that includes all people who internally and/or externally identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer, or other sexual and gender identities.

Other Populations of Concern

Questionnaire respondents specified “Other Populations of Concern,” including: civilians; survivors of conflict-related sexual violence; families of missing persons; families of victims of war; people living with HIV; sex workers; people living with Hepatitis B; drug users; not group-specific; students; unemployed; civil society activists; nomadic herders; rural communities; former camp inmates; people living in poverty; farmers; elderly; victims’ organizations; and human rights organizations.

Other Challenges

An option that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 7.55% of Questionnaire respondents specified “Other Challenges,” including: spatial specificity of data shared by partners often lacking; archiving; permanent storage; sustainability; exhibition; production of education materials such as CD, story books, toolkits, documentary-film etc.; data collection and management; lack of collaboration from judicial authorities; disillusionment among victims that documentation will end the conflict or lead to justice; human rights defenders burning out, feeling secondary trauma, and/or migrating to Europe; complacency and willful disregard among elected officials; lack of coordination; managing expectations; victim follow up in situations of displacement; lack of technological capacity; lack of tangible uses for documentation at current point in time; time-consuming process; donor exhaustion; resource-intensive; willingness of survivors to be interviewed; documented population apprehensive about digital data collection methods and tools; access to information or people who control the information; physical space; access to victims; adequate expected support; accessibility of community gatekeepers; lack of cooperation with the former camp inmate associations; and lack of cooperation with relevant authorities.

Other Methods

Questionnaire respondents specified several “Other Methods,” including: mapping; arts and theatre; medical records; copies of ID cards; victims’ information; government documents; reports by hospitals; forensic archaeology; forensic (physical) anthropology; requests to authorities based on the Law on Free Access to Information of Public Importance; UN ICTY Court Records; ICRC lists of missing persons; training on documentation skills; forensic psychological evaluation; texts for environmental toxins; participatory mapping; budget analysis; analysis of publicly available data; information from doctors; desk research; ICTY documentation; domestic courts documentation; international and domestic reports; Justice Report; OSCE War Crimes Map; INFOBIRO archive; workshops; historical memory and research; statistics and data collection; and strengthening memory initiatives.

Other Violations

Questionnaire respondents specified “Other Violations,” including: hate crimes and hate speech; status of criminal prosecutions for grave human rights violations committed during conflict; destruction or damage to medical facilities and schools; military sieges in civilian areas preventing access to water, food or basic services; right to security and liberty; right to life; right to family life; right to recognition as a person before the law; forced mobilization; use of starvation as a weapon; siege tactics; violations of the right to food; violations related to large-scale mining operations, particularly on territories of nomadic herders and water resources (both surface and ground); war crimes violations; illegal detention of civilians and soldiers; torture and killings in detention places; terrorist attacks; threats; personal injuries; landmines; corruption; armed conflicts; support to illegal armed groups; illicit crops; corruption; massacres; drug trafficking; and kidnapping.

Personal Narrative

A written or oral account of event or series of connected events by the person who experienced it, not by someone interviewing.

Physical Evidence

Survey responses relating to physical evidence gathering include: forensic pathology; medical examinations; crime scene analysis; DNA analysis; and documentary analysis.

Political / Civil Violations

A human rights violation category from the Questionnaire that includes: violations of freedom of association; due process violations; violations of freedom of movement; violations of freedom of thoughts, conscience, or religion; violations of freedom of expression; discrimination; violations related to citizenship and nationality; election-related violations; violations related to the right to political participation; violations of rights of minorities; use of death penalty.

Political Prisoners

A population of concern that includes persons in prison or detained for political reasons.

Population of Concern

The population of people on which an individual or organization focus their mission and work. For example, an organization that documents violations against women and girls in conflict; their population of concern is women.

Questionnaire

The qualitative survey used by the Human Rights Documentation Toolkit consortium to better understand the 2015–2016 documentation universe. The results and tools from this Questionnaire were used in the making of this toolkit. More information here.

Religious Minorities

A population of concern that includes all religious minorities as defined by individual organizations or local communities.

Security for Individuals Conducting Documentation

An option that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 7.55% of respondents said their biggest challenge is ensuring the security for individuals in the field documenting human rights violations.

Security for Victims and Witnesses

An option that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 39.62% of respondents said their biggest challenge is ensuring the security or how to protect the security for victims and witnesses.

Security of Information/Data

An option that respondents could select from the “Challenges” section of the Questionnaire. 3.77% of respondents said their biggest challenge was protecting and ensuring the security of the information collected.

Social Violations

A human rights violation category from the Questionnaire that includes: denying access to information and services – health; denying access to information and services – other issues; discrimination in employment; and denying access to education.

Violations Against the Person

A human rights violation category from the Questionnaire that includes: arbitrary arrests/detention; death in custody; disappearances; excessive use of force by security forces; forced conversion; forced labor; forced marriage; forced prostitution; forced displacement; human trafficking; killings; physical torture and inhumane treatment; psychological torture/intimidation; recruitment and use of child soldiers; restrictions of civilian movement; sexual and gender-based violence; and targeting of civilians during conflict.

Women

This population of concern includes all women and girls.

1 The Paris Principles: the Principles and Guidelines on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups, 7 (February 2007), available at https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/our-work/paris-principles/.

2 See United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Displaced Person/Displacement (2016), available at http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/international-migration/glossary/displaced-person-displacement/.

3 João Pinheiro, Introduction to Forensic Medicine and Pathology, in Forensic Anthropology and Medicine: Complementary Sciences from Recovery to Cause of Death 13, 14 (Schmitt, A., Ed. 2006).

4 Regional human rights treaties include, but are not limited to: African (Banjul) Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, June 27, 1981, OAU Doc. CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58 (1986), available at http://www.achpr.org/files/instruments/achpr/banjul_charter.pdf; European Convention on Human Rights, November 4, 1950, Rome (1953), available at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Convention_on_Human_Rights; American Convention on Human Rights, November 22, 1969, OAS (1978), available at http://www.cidh.org/basicos/english/Basic3.American%20Convention.htm.

5 United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Who are indigenous peoples?, available at http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/5session_factsheet1.pdf.